• Jefferson's 90/10 Model  puerto rico california flag               


    Within dual immersion programs, there are two main versions used to accomplish the aforementioned objectives. In the education world, they are known as the 90/10 and the 50/50 models. And, most schools determine which one they’re going to use depending on its demographics, needs and resources.


    In the 90:10 model, the amount of time spent on each language varies depending on what grade the student is in. Usually, they spend 90% of their time being taught in Spanish and 10% in English while in kindergarten and first grade. By second and third grades, the percentages shift to 80% of the time in Spanish and 20% in English. The idea is to gradually move to where students will be taught half of the time in one language and the other half in the other. This normally happens by the time the students get to fifth grade.


    The 50:50 model does this from the very beginning. However, there are a few ways to actually accomplish teaching half of the time in English and the other half in the second language. Some schools do it by dividing the school day into two. Others alternate languages each week. And still others teach certain subjects in English and others in the second language.


    Jefferson Elementary is one of the four District schools that offer a K-5 Dual Immersion program, along with King Elementary, Lowell Elementary, and Pío Pico Elementary. Jefferson is the only school utilizing the 90/10 Dual Immersion model, and has been in existence for over ten years.


    To maintain an environment of educational and linguistic equity in the classroom and to promote interactions between native and non-native English speakers, the most desirable ratio is 50% English speakers to 50% second language speakers whenever possible. Keeping this ratio is difficult to do from year to year when families move to different schools. To stay within the program design, the recommendation of many practitioners is that the ratio should never go below 33 percent for either language group. 




    90% Spanish

    10% English

    (English Language Development, ELD)



    90% Spanish

    10% English

    (English Language Development, ELD)



    80% Spanish

    20% English



    70% Spanish

    30% English



    60% Spanish

    40% English



    50% Spanish

    50% English




    50% English Proficient Students

    50% English Learner Students

    (According to the research, when this is not possible ratio can be as low as 67%/33%)