• Class Syllabus




     United States History

    Unit 1

    Foundations of early America 1491–1865 Columbus to Civil War ~ 6 weeks 


    Unit 2 

    Reconstruction/ Industrialization and The Gilded Age 1865 - 1898  ~ 4.5 weeks


    Unit 3

    US imperialism and WWI/Versailles

    1898-1919   ~ 4 weeks 


    Unit 4

    The Roaring Twenties 

    1920 - 1929 ~ 2.5 weeks 


    Semester 2:


    Unit 5

    The Great Depression and the New Deal  1929- 1941 ~ 3.5 weeks 


    Unit 6

    US Involvement in WWII

    1939 - 1945 ~ 2.5 weeks 

    Unit 7

    Post War America and the Cold War

    1945- 1970  ~ 5 weeks


    Unit 8

    Civil Rights movements/Vietnam

    1950 - now  ~ 3.5 weeks


    Unit 9 

      Contemporary US Society 

     1980 - Now ~ 2 weeks 




    Unit 1.    Foundations of government



    3- weeks

    Unit 2. Legislative Branch 

    3- weeks

    Senate and the House of Representatives

    Unit 3. Executive branch

    President and the powers of the office

    Bureaucracy - the running of the country


    Unit 4.  Judicial branch 

    Court system

    Civil Liberties

    Civil Rights

    3- weeks

    Unit 5. Political behavior/ demographics

    Political Parties

    Voting behavior/demographics

    Electoral process

    Media/public opinion 

    2- weeks

    Unit 6. State government/ California 

    State government

    Local Government


    Review for final


    Mr. Lawrence




    Fundamental Economics


    Scarcity & Choice

    Economics Questions

    Economics Systems

    3 - weeks




    Supply, Demand &Equilibrium

    Business Competition

    3 - weeks


    Consumer Economics






    5 - weeks 




    Unemployment & Inflation

    Business Cycles

    Fiscal Policy

    Monetary Policy

    4 - weeks


    International Trade


    Import, Export

    Exchange Rates

    Global Economy

     2 - weeks
    Review for final -1 week

    Advanced Placement Macroeconomics

                  Course Outline

    1. Basic Economic Concepts
    2. Scarcity : the nature of economic systems

    1) Scarcity and choice

    (a) rational behavior

    (b) marginalism: benefits and cost

    2) The foundation of economics

    (a) unlimited wants

    (b) scarcer resources

    3) Economics: employment and efficiency

    (a) full employment using available resources

    (b) full production using resources efficiently

    1. Opportunity costs and production possibilities

    1) law of increasing opportunity costs

    2) allocative efficiency

    1. Specialization and comparative advantage
    2. The functions of an economic system

    1) The circular flow model

    2) The market system at work

    (a) determining what is to be produced

    (b) organizing production

    (c) distributing total output

    (d) accommodating change

    (e) competition and control

    (f) the “invisible hand”

    1. Demand, supply and price determination

    1) Law of demand

    (a) the demand curve

    (b) individual and market demand

    (c) determinants of demand

    2) Law of supply

    (a) the supply curve

    (b) determinants of supply

    3) Supply and demand: market equilibrium

    (a) surpluses

    (b) shortages

    (c) equilibrium, rationing functions of prices

    (d) changes in supply and demand

    (e) the resource market

    1. Pure capitalism and the market system

    1) Capitalistic ideologies

    (a) private property

    (b) freedom of enterprises and choice

    (c) role of self-interest

    (d) competition

    (e) limited government

    2) The competitive market system

    1. The market economy: private and public sectors

    1) Households as income receivers

    (a) functional distribution of income

    (b) personal distribution of income

    (c) households as spenders

    (d) personal taxes

    (e) personal savings

    (f) personal consumption expenditures

    2) The business population

    3) Economic functions of government

    4) Government finance

    (a) government growth: purchases and transfers

    (b) federal finance




    • Interpret Production Possibility Curve
    • Create and Analyze Supply and Demand Graphs
    • Create and Interpret comparative advantage Charts
    • Analyze the Circular Flow of Money Model
    • Change in Demand/Supply v Change in quantity demanded/supplied
    • Factors of Supply and Demand
    • Price Floors and Ceilings
    • Elastic and Inelastic Supply and Demand


    1. Measurement of Economic Performance
    2. Gross national product, gross domestic product and national income concepts

    1) Expenditure growth

    2) Income approach

    3) Other social accounts

    (a) net domestic product

    (b) national income

    (c) personal income

    (d) disposable income

    (e) circular flow revisited

    4) Computing GDP

    (a) nominal and real GDP

    (b) inflating and deflating GDP

    1. Inflation and price indices

    1) Measuring price level

    (a) implicit GDP price deflator

    (b) consumer price index and producer price index

    2) Redistributive effect of inflation

    (a) fixed-nominal-income receivers

    (b) savers, debtors and creditors

    (c) anticipated inflation

    3) Output effects of inflation

    (a) stimulus of demand-pull inflation

    (b) cost-push inflation and unemployment

    (c) hyperinflation and breakdown

    1. Unemployment

    1) The business cycle

    (a) the historical record

    (b) phases of the business cycle

    (c) causation

    2) Types of unemployment

    (a) defining “full employment

    (b) measuring unemployment

    (c) economic costs of unemployment

    (d) non-economic costs

    (e) international comparisons



    • Compute GDP using various means (C+I+G+(X-M)) and (W+I+R+P)
    • Breakdown the components of GDP (Income and Expenditure Approaches)
    • Interpret statistics with regard to the business cycle
    • Real GDP= Nominal GDP/ Price Index
    • Analyze the Phillips Curve
    • Distinguish between different types of unemployment (including what constitutes the natural rate of unemployment
    • Price index= market basket for current year/ market basket for base year



    III. National Income and Price Determination

    1. Aggregate supply

    1) Classical analysis

    2) Keynesian analysis, aggregate expenditures model

    3) Rational expectations

    (a) natural rate hypothesis

    (b) adaptive expectations theory

    (c) rational expectations theory

    4) Aggregate supply curve and determinants of aggregate supply

    1. Aggregate demand

    1) Circular flow

    2) Changes in equilibrium GDP and the multiplier

    (a) deriving aggregate demand curve from the aggregate expenditures model

    (b) determinants of aggregate demand

    (1) international trade and equilibrium output

    (2) personal consumption

    (3) investment

    (4) government

    (c) aggregate demand shits and the aggregate expenditures model

    3) Fiscal policy

    (a) discretionary fiscal policy

    (b) financing debts and disposing of surpluses

    (c) policy options: government spending or taxation?

    (d) non-discretionary fiscal policy: built in stabilizers

    (e) supply-side fiscal policy




    • Analyze the Keynesian cross
    • Compare and contrast economic models
    • Apply models to current and past fiscal policies
    • Expansionary and Recessionary Gaps
    • Credit Market Graph
    • Demand Pull Inflation
    • Cost Push Inflation
    • Spending Multiplier
    • MPC +MPS = 1
    • Phillips Curve (Long and Short Run)
    • MPC = change in consumption /change in income
    • MPS= change in savings/ change in income


    4) Monetary policy

    (a) goals of monetary policy

    (b) tools of monetary policy

    (1) open market operations

    (2) the reserve ratio

    (3) the discount rate

    (c) easy money and tight money

    (d) monetary policy, real GDP and price level

    (e) monetary policy and aggregate supply

    (f) strengths of monetary policy and the shortcomings and problems

    1. Money and Banking

    1) Definition of money and its creation

    (a) functions of money

    (b) what backs the money supply?

    (1) money as debt

    (2) value of money

    (3) money and prices

    (c) maintaining money’s value

    (d) the United States financial system

    2) How banks create money

    (a) the banking system, multiple deposit expansion

    (b) the banking system’s lending potential, the money multiplier

    1. Fiscal-monetary mix

    1) Interaction of fiscal and monetary policies

    2) Monetarist-keynesian controversy

    1. Budget deficits and the public debt

    1) Deficits and debt definitions

    (a) annually balanced budget

    (b) cyclically balanced budget

    (c) functional finance

    2) The public debt, facts and figures

    (a) causes-quantitative aspects

    (b) economic implications, shifting burdens

    3) Implications and issues

    (a) income distribution

    (b) incentives

    (c) external debt

    (d) curb on fiscal policy

    (e) crowding out and stock of capital

    4) Recent federal deficits

    (a) budget deficits and trade deficits

    (b) higher interest rates

    (c) dollar appreciation

    1. Tradeoffs between inflation and unemployment

    1) Long-run vs. short-run

    2) Supply shocks

    3) Role of expectations




    • Analyze the Keynesian cross
    • Compare and contrast economic models
    • Apply models to current and past fiscal policies
    • Expansionary and Recessionary Gaps
    • Credit Market Graph
    • Demand Pull Inflation
    • Cost Push Inflation
    • Spending Multiplier
    • MPC +MPS = 1
    • Phillips Curve (Long and Short Run)
    • MPC = change in consumption /change in income
    • MPS= change in savings/ change in income


    • Money Multiplier= 1/required reserve ratio

    Analyze the difference between M1, M2, and M3


    1. International Economics
    2. Balance of payments, international finance and exchange rates

    1) the economic basis for trade

    (a) comparative advantage, graphical analysis

    (b) terms of trade

    (c) gains of trade

    2) Supply and demand analysis of exports and imports

    (a) supply and demand in the United States

    (b) equilibrium world price, exports and imports

    3) Trade barriers

    (a) economic impact of tariffs

    (b) economic impact of quotas

    (c) the case for protection, a critical review

    (1) military self-sufficiency argument

    (2) increase domestic employment

    (3) diversification for stability

    (4) infant industry argument

    (d) costs of protection


      Foreign Exchange Rate Graph

      Comparative Advantage Chart

    1. Economic Growth
    2. Growth economics

    1) growth as a goal

    2) arithmetic of growth

    3) ingredients of growth

    1. United States growth

    1) accounting for growth

    2) input vs. productivity

    3) quantity of labor

    4) technological advance

    5) quantity of capital

    6) education and training

    7) resource economics and scale economics

Last Modified on September 18, 2019